Socialization & Social Skills Supported
Teach Socially Meaningful Behaviors Which Can Be Naturally Reinforced In Environments
For example, saying the word "excuse me" or raising one's hand in class can be rewarding in and of itself when (or if) the individual actually is acknowledged and needs are met, etc.
Set Up A "Win/Win" Situation For The Individual & Peers
For example, the child or adolescent can earn points or tokens for a particular behavior which the individual will use to purchase additional "minutes" towards a special activity. If supervised well, this can help promote positive peer interactions. It also may help to mend some relationships for the individual.
Visual Cueing & Response Prompting
(Have been used to increase spontaneous social initiations, initiate play activities, increase self-initiated speech, increase spontaneous speech in naturally occurring daily routines, teach a generalized response to questions and decrease echolalic responses (Ogletree & Oren, 2001)
Basically, it involves teaching the specific skill to the individual usually within a very structured setting. The teacher leads this type of instruction - sometimes through modeling how to do the task. This may involve quite a bit of practice, review, practice, review, etc.
Pivotal Response Training
Motivation and self-initiation are examples of pivotal areas to learn. When learned, they increase a child's behavior repertoire .... they learn even more behaviors after they learn the pivotal areas. Koegel, R. explains how this applied behavior analysis technique ends up being fun for the child or individual with an ASD and less stressful for the caretaker. The individual experiences that their efforts are tied to the consequence or reinforcer.
Especially when used with reinforcers... social narratives can also be known as "Social Stories" termed by Carol Grey. A social narrative is like a precursor to a social situation. It prepares an individual for a social situation which may be challenging. Carol Grey emphasizes the need for explaining the skill needed in the situation.. but from the individual's perspective.
Video modeling can be a helpful tool - "Model-Me-Kids" has a free "app" that shows young kids interacting in different venues. Also "Coultier Videos" has some social skills for adolescents & adults with developmental disabilities. A new software program is "The Social Express" (thesocialexpress.com).
These are usually not as involved as a social narrative. Also, social scripts can be used as reminders or prompts for the individual to say (or demonstrate) a socially appropriate response or initiation to others.
This strategy has shown to be very helpful. Peers will need to be trained on how to encourage or prompt individual. Also, peers can help with modeling the appropriate behavior and reinforce the individual when they demonstrate the behavior.
Promote Play Skills
Map out play experiences with peers under structured supervision to increase the development of communication and socialization
(Example of skills to possibly strengthen: Joint attention, social and pretend play; social engagement, sensory and emotional regulation; social problem solving, and appropriate participation in group activities & pragmatics)
Video Modeling, Modeling, (demonstrating the behavior through various means), Peer-Mediated Social Skills Training; Pivotal Response Training; Script/Script Fading Procedures; Self-Management; Recreational/Sports/Exercise (especially with peer models); Socialization related classes (especially if peers taught how to interact and be models of skills); Social Narratives; Social Stories when used with behavior principles